An analysis of the legal factors considered in a child endangerment case.
An adult caring for a child has a legal responsibility to ensure that child is free from unreasonably dangerous situations. When an adult caregiver fails to adequately protect a child, states often punish this as a crime known as “child endangerment.”
While some states may punish child endangerment as a different offense than child abuse, other states include child endangerment activity as a type of child abuse. Child endangerment occurs whenever a parent, guardian, or other adult caregiver allows a child to be placed or remain in a dangerous, unhealthy, or inappropriate situation.
What Constitutes Child Endangerment?
Though state laws differ in how they categorize and punish child endangerment, it is a crime in every state. State laws share these characteristics.
Actions or situations that endanger
Child endangerment laws are often very broadly applied, and any number of acts can lead to a conviction. Courts have held that obviously dangerous activities such as having a child in a car while driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs constitutes child endangerment. Other dangerous activities that qualify include failing to properly secure a child while driving an automobile, exposing a child to drug transactions, drug manufacturing, having unsecured firearms in the same environment as a child, engaging in sexual activity in view of a child, or leaving a young child without proper supervision.
Injury: actual or potential
Child endangerment laws are designed to punish behavior that might lead to a child becoming harmed, but they do not require that children actually suffer an injury or physical harm. State laws often categorize child endangerment as placing a child in a situation that might endanger the child's life, health, welfare, morals, or emotional well-being. However, child endangerment may still be charged in cases where the actions of the caregiver did eventually result in the child being physically injured or harmed.
Intentional, or not?
To obtain a conviction for child endangerment crime, a prosecutor does not have to show that a parent or caregiver intentionally meant to expose the child to a dangerous situation. The courts apply a “reasonable person” standard in child endangerment cases. This means that even if the accused didn't realize the situation was dangerous, reasonable people in that situation would have understood their actions endangered the child's well-being. The circumstances of each case will determine whether the accused either knew or should have known that the child was endangered.
To be convicted of child endangerment, and adult caregiver must do more than simply make a mistake or act unwisely. A caregiver must place a child in a situation where it is more likely than not the child will become exposed to harm. Courts have ruled, for example, that parents who left their child in a locked car with the engine running while they went into a store for approximately 40 minutes did not endanger the child.
Child endangerment is punished as either a misdemeanor or a felony depending on the circumstances of the case and state law. Each state punishes child endangerment differently, though the potential punishments for conviction are the same wherever the crime occurs. The difference between a misdemeanor and felony charge often rests upon whether the child was exposed to significant harm, or was placed in a particularly dangerous situation. Some states also differentiate felonies and misdemeanors based on whether the child suffered actual physical harm as a result of the adult's actions.
- Jail or Prison. People convicted of a misdemeanor child endangerment charge typically face up to one year in jail. Felony convictions are much more serious, and anyone convicted of felony child endangerment faces 1 to 10 years in prison, or more.
- Probation. Courts may also order someone convicted of child endangerment to serve a probation sentence. Probation typically lasts at least a year and requires the convicted person to regularly report to a probation officer, as well as take other actions such as attend family counseling and refrain from further illegal activity. Violating the terms of probation can result in the court ordering a jail or prison sentence.
- Fines. In the same way that jail sentences differ depending on whether a person is convicted of a misdemeanor or felony charge, the fines a court imposes for child endangerment convictions also differ widely. A misdemeanor child endangerment conviction can bring fines of up to $1,000, while felony convictions can come with fines of up to $10,000 or more.
- Parental rights. If a parent or legal guardian is convicted of child endangerment, the court may strip the parent of parental rights. In this situation, either the other parent will retain sole parental rights, or, if there is no other parent, the court will appoint a new guardian to care for the child. The child may also be placed with the state child services agency until a new guardian can be appointed.
Learn about other common crimes and their penalties.
For more on child abuse and endangerment, see the following.
- Child Abuse Laws
- Child Desertion and Abandonment
- Criminal Consequences of Spanking Your Children
- Criminal Consequences of Spanking in Schools
Talk to a Lawyer
A child endangerment charge is a very serious matter, and one that can result in significant criminal penalties as well as the potential loss of parental rights. Anyone facing child endangerment charges should immediately speak to a qualified local criminal defense attorney. An experienced criminal defense attorney is the only person who can give you legal advice about your situation and how the laws of your state apply to your case.